Technology Fundamentals


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These subjects cover the fundamental knowledge that you need in order to master the Die Casting process.

Each subject has a direct application to the Die Casting process and the knowledge gained will be used in  subjects in Sections 3 and 4.

 Basic Parameters in the Die Casting Process

SubjectHeaderGauge200This subject introduces all the basic parameters, along with their definition, units of measure, and examples of their use in calculations in relation to the Die Casting process.

For anyone that has not studied maths, or basic science for a long time, this is the ideal way to get up to speed. For people that have good maths skills, but are new to Die Casting technology, this subject will provide a quick intoduction to the field.                                                                   

 Fluid Flow in Die Casting

FluidFlowMainGraphic200Fluids are fundamental to the Die Casting process, including hydraulic fluid, cooling fluids, die release agents and the molten alloy itself. So a basic knowledge of how they flow, supported with simple calculations is an essential part of a technician's toolkit.

Continuity, flow rate and fluid velocity are explored in detail, followed by the role of pressure, frictional loss and an explanation of what happens at an orifice. This basic knowledge will enable a technician to avoid the sorts of mistakes that are often made in Die Casting by people who have never had the opportunity, or the will, to learn it.

Shot End Characteristics of Die Casting Machines: Part 1

ShotEnd1Header200This subject follows on from the one above and looks at how the Die Casting machine must supply the pressure and the flow rate to fill a cavity with liquid metal.

The student is taught how to collate, calculate and utilise all the relevant information about the shot end parameters of Die Casting machines. Shot force, hydraulic pressures, slow-shot speed, fast shot speed and shot power are all analysed in detail. The origin and use of the PQ-squared diagram is covered, including the effects of shot sleeve diameter, gate area and shot speed setting.


Shot End Characteristics of Die Casting Machines: Part 2

ShotEnd2Header200This subject is a continuation of the one above and it starts at the dynamic pressure pulse created when the plunger comes to a sudden stop when cavity is full. It then looks at what happens in during the period when the casting is solidifying and intensification is applied. 

The slow shot phase is then explored with the effect of wave celerity and fill percentage, followed by a review of shot end design and ways to maximise performance.


Heat Flow and Solidification

HeatFlowHeaderGraphic02This module starts with the basic concepts of heat and temperature and the the sources of heat used in the Die Casting industry. The follows the concept of adding heat to liquids and solids and the effect of the heat capacity of different materials.

Basic formulas are explained with worked examples, to give the student the confidence to make simpe calculations involving heat and temperature as it applies in the Die Casting process.

Then follows an explanation of how the solidification process proceeds within the cavity and how this can effect the properties and integrity of the casting.

 Clamping Forces in Die Casting Machines

ClampingHeader200This subject covers the range of clamping mechanisms found in Die Casting machines and will enable the student to calculate the theoretical strains and forces and measure the actual values being achieved in the plant. Mechanisms, components, alignment and  die opening forces are also included.  


Properties of Die Casting Alloys

IngotImage02This subject examines the specifications, chemical constituents and physical properties of all the common alloys used in Die Casting.

It includes the main alloys of Aluminium, Zinc, Magnesium as well as some basic information on lead and brass casting alloys.


Materials for Die Casting Dies and Equipment

This subject starts with a detailed look at H13 die steels, their alloying contents, the heat treatment procedures required to achieve the optimum properties and tests for hardness and impact strength. Alternative steels are reviewed along with other materials that can be used to change the thermal conductivity and other properties. Steels for die blocks, sliding cores, ejector pins and cores, along with coatings and surface treatment technologies are also covered. Materials for shot sleeves, plungers, nozzles, goosenecks and holding pots are reviewed.


Die and Process Design >>>


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